1–6 In turn, depression and anxiety may cause a further decline in quality of life, may aggravate disability caused by the visual impairment, and may increase vulnerability for health decline.6–9 By the year 2020 depression is expected to be the major cause of disease burden for older populations.10,11 The prevalence of visual impairment in developed countries is growing due to demographic ageing.1 Therefore, the burden on eye care and mental health care for people with a visual impairment is expected to increase.
Purpose.: We assessed the prevalence of subthreshold depression and anxiety, and major depressive, dysthymic, and anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, and general anxiety disorder) in visually impaired older adults and compared these estimates with those of normally sighted peers.
Methods.: Cross-sectional data were analyzed based on telephone interviews with visually impaired older adults aged ≥ 60 years (n = 615) with a visual acuity of ≥ 0.30 logMAR (20/40 Snellen) in the best eye from outpatient low vision rehabilitation centers, and face-to-face interviews with community-dwelling normally sighted peers (n = 1232). To determine prevalence rates, the normally sighted population was weighted on sex and age to fit the visually impaired population. Logistic regression analyses were used to compare the populations and to correct for confounders.
Results.: The prevalence of major depressive disorder (5.4%) and anxiety disorders (7.5%), as well as the prevalence of subthreshold depression (32.2%) and subthreshold anxiety (15.6%), were significantly higher in visually impaired older adults compared to their normally sighted peers (P < 0.05). Agoraphobia and social phobia were the most prevalent anxiety disorders in visually impaired older adults.
Conclusions.: This study shows that depression and anxiety are major public health problems in visually impaired older adults. Research on psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic interventions to improve depression and anxiety in this population is warranted. (http://www.trialregister.nl number, NTR3296.)
Sources: https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2212840 (full article)
Day after day I felt it couldn't continue to burn myself out. I looked up at the sky and begged for silence, rest and peace.
I was fatally tired and the last straw had manifest; my partner abandoned me and moved on. Shortly after, circumstances took their toll and I collapsed..
All in all, I spent 6 months in total isolation and silence. During this time, I went through absolute mental and physical fasting. I also met twice with the other side, which was the scariest moments in my life, but allowed me to experience a deeper insight - a sense of enlightenment.
In other words, I gathered my desire and the last willpower and after 100% focus on myself and my healing:
- I walked out of bed after 2 months in 5 days;
- I was healed from illness in 4 months;
- I was recovered and restored my body power in 6 months;
- I was all clear and I changed my life to 180°!
Within the healing time, I had to go through all my unsolved pain and injuries from the past and worked with that at the same time in order to allow myself to naturally heal, no drugs or experiments involved.
To be fully healed and feel no more pain or suffering we have to give it enough focus to ascertain the roots thereof!
Today I am infinitely grateful for the blessings I received and I am now, in turn, to inspired to use my gifts to help and heal others!
The method I use will help you overcome difficulties, learn from my similar experiences, receive guidance and support to cope with your story, achieve healing, recovery, peace and happiness.
BLUEPRINTS - THE METHOD I USE
I'll help you find a way out of suffering from Stress, Crisis, Loneliness, Burnout, Phobia, Conflict, Domestic Violence, Anxiety- and Panic Disorder, Body Illness, generally, whatever the case may be.